Functional appliances use the movements of the muscles and jaw to create gradual bone movement.
Fixed orthodontic appliances are sets of wires and brackets that are cemented to the teeth. These are commonly called braces. Over a period of months, the wires are tightened and adjusted, gradually applying enough force to move the teeth (bone remodeling).
Retainers are removable appliances made of molded plastic and wire. They hold the teeth in place after braces are taken off. If the teeth start to move back out of position, the orthodontist may bond a short retaining wire to the back of some teeth. This will hold the teeth in place until the wire is removed.
During the childhood and teen years, the orthodontist will time the treatments to match with your child's natural growth spurts to move permanent teeth into place.
Treatment for crowding, the most common malocclusion problem, may mean removing (extracting) some permanent teeth, but orthodontists avoid removing permanent teeth when they can.
The malocclusion treatments for children and adolescents are:
Most adults have little or no jaw growth. This means that surgery is the only way to correct jaw-related bite problems. Some adults may benefit from simply camouflaging, or hiding, a jaw-related problem. Using braces, the orthodontist can move the teeth so that they fit together, despite the jaw discrepancy. However, surgery is the best way to treat more severe jaw problems.
Orthodontic treatment for malocclusion is a popular option for adults, due in part to better technology. In the past, wide silver bands held braces in place. Today they are less obvious. Instead of the wide bands, a small metal or ceramic fastener is bonded to each tooth, and a narrow wire passes through the fasteners.
New options include:
Lingual braces and aligners don't work for everyone. They aren't options for children. Your orthodontist can tell you the best choices for your situation.
Orthodontic treatment for adults may also involve:
Some cases of malocclusion clearly require orthodontic treatment. In many cases, however, the decision is a matter of personal choice.
The timing of treatment is ultimately up to you and your child or teen. Talk to your orthodontist about the pros and cons of treatment options.
Orthodontic treatment doesn't pose risks to adults who have healthy teeth and gums. Adults who have gum (periodontal) disease, however, must first get treatment from a periodontist to avoid possible gum damage or tooth loss. Orthodontic treatment sometimes can worsen preexisting conditions.
Orthodontic treatment isn't an exact science. Treatment is sometimes unpredictable, taking longer than planned. If teeth are likely to move after braces are removed, you may need a retainer for an indefinite period of years.
Orthodontic treatment is costly. Most medical and dental insurance plans don't pay for orthodontics. Before deciding on treatment, ask about the projected cost, terms of payment, and terms of the treatment contract.
Once treatment is over, teeth often begin to shift. Molded plastic retainers, usually worn at night, help prevent this tooth movement. Your orthodontist may suggest using a retainer for months or even years.